learn cantonese tones
Over the course of the last year, I rarely studied Cantonese for more than 15-30 minutes a day. In Part 3, I'll go over some basic Cantonese grammar. How to Learn Cantonese Method 1 of 3: Greetings and Small Talk. Cantonese certainly provides this level of challenge for the motivated polyglot. Cantonese is difficult to learn because of the 9 tones? While Mandarin is the more dominant language inside the People’s Republic of China, Cantonese is arguably the more international of the Chinese languages. There are some shortcuts but learning the words requires you to learn the pronunciation and the characters. So that is your overview of Cantonese. Just stop analyzing the tones, please. I wish to hear your responses. The spoken language can be represented in a number of written forms. Chinese (Cantonese) Video 2: Chinese (Cantonese) Consonants. From then the language spread across much of southern China. Bringing together all these ideas, on balance i’d have to say Cantonese is more difficult than Mandarin mainly because of the increased difficulty of learning and using 6 tones. "The Phantom Tone" by I’m Learning Cantonese (download medium on the App Store or Play Store) Cf. Learn Cantonese. There is also a vernacular written Cantonese which can be found in Hong Kong which more closely aligns with the spoken Cantonese. The difference between the two tonal systems… eBook: Dave Wong: Amazon.ca: Kindle Store You can also change the colour and speed of the stroke order and see Jyutping. An example is 蘭, which is pronounced as "lan4". Lets also assume you are familiar with English. Learning the subtleties of tones in Cantonese is more important than you think. I found that we have to change the tones of some words, when used in particular phrases. For example 雪櫃 refrigerator which is made up of 雪 snow + 櫃 cupboard or another example of 雞公 rooster which is made up of 雞 chicken + 公 male. In mainland China excluding Hong Kong and Macau, Cantonese is being crowded out by Mandarin. Not surprisingly, tones have a tendency to scare people away from learning Chinese because they’re commonly deemed too difficult to learn. While most native speakers say there are nine tones, in modern Cantonese only six are now taught as shown by the picture below: So what is the best way to learn the tones? This dominance began during the Southern Song dynasty (960 – 1279). How to be toneful in Cantonese – Rosalyn Shih If you are intimidated by the prospect of learning Mandarin because it’s a tonal language, you might as well give up on Cantonese right now. These differences don’t cause differing complexity so on balance, the relative grammar difficulty is similar. he modifications include a few major distinctions as follows: The "j" used by the Jyutping romanization system has been amended to the "y" used by English speakers, and similarly the "yu" vowel/ ü sound (IPA: The "z" consonant will be written with “j” as it sounds in jo. It may happen that the Chinese themselves make a mistake about the tone. For example, 89% of the words that are pronounced tone 2 in Cantonese are pronounced tone 3 in Mandarin (e.g., 找 ‘find’, pronounced zaau2 in Cantonese and zhao3 in Mandarin) and Cantonese … However, as the rest of mainland China has become richer, other people from other regions of China speaking Mandarin have begun studying or moving permanently abroad. I discovered the complexity of Chinese tones during my project to learn Cantonese. Rather, it is the amalgamation of different vowel sounds and tones that drives beginners crazy. Mandarin has 4 tones plus a neutral tone within a narrow range of pitch, Cantonese on the other hand has 6 tones within two ranges of pitch. Nov 11, 2019 - 6 Cantonese tones- Learn and teach the different tones in Cantonese for children and beginners with this handy chart-includes examples of characters with the tones and English equivalents #LanguageLovers #LanguageLearningMarket #Bilingual There are lots of these in Cantonese. Human beings learn to speak by nature, not by phonology analysing. This would make building vocabulary easier to pick up in Cantonese. However, for things like direct objects vs indirect objects or word order for comparative sentences the grammar is different. But I don't know why. Only two, should be easy to remember right? Say "hello" with "nei5 hou2. In recent years, many people have rallied to the defence of the language and it looks to be in a more sustained stable position. In western countries like the USA, the UK, Canada and Australia, Cantonese is the most common of the Chinese languages found. 2. Due to its sister languages prominence, native speakers will be happy to see people even just attempt to learn a few words of Cantonese. Chinese (Cantonese) Video 1: Tones and the Jyutping Spelling System. But like anything in the field of language learning…where there's a will, there's a way! In finals that end in a Interactive Cantonese lessons with audio files Cantonese Lessons. Learning Cantonese with Online Courses . For example, in English we naturally use a falling tone at the end of a statement ( You came.) The Grammar and Language Skills lessons build upon each other, while the Vocabulary and Sounds and Tones … Nov 11, 2019 - 6 Cantonese tones- Learn and teach the different tones in Cantonese for children and beginners with this handy chart-includes examples of characters with the tones and English equivalents #LanguageLovers #LanguageLearningMarket #Bilingual In Part 1 of the course, we will talk about the foundations of learning Cantonese: the 6 tones, the vowels and the consonants. Verbs are regular and don’t change for subject or tense. TONES – Mandarin has four tones, Cantonese has six (nine historically) LOCATION – Mandarin is the standard language of Mainland China and has over a billion native speakers. This allows them to be able to speak Mandarin and understand its usage. Cantonese is difficult to learn because of the 9 tones? Nope. This is despite attempts by the government to limit its use. So to answer the question. The "c" (pronounced like 'ts') will be written with "ch" in all instances except when preceding vowels "i" and "a", to more accurately reflect pronunciation. My first language is English, I learned Mandarin all the way through high school, and I live in a Cantonese/English speaking household. (By study, I mean any activity where I was focused on learning the language. The 4 tones that you will learn here are those used for Mandarin, the official language. If you ask native speakers they will tell you that Cantonese has 9 tones and that it’s impossible for foreigners to master them. 7. I wish you the best of luck in learning Cantonese. But Cantonese and Mandarin aren’t the only Chinese languages with a tonal system. When Chinese people were first moving abroad to Europe and the USA they tended to be from Guangdong or HK/Macau so they spoke. With pinyin, the tone of each syllable is indicated by the following marks: or sometimes by the corresponding numbe… To understand how Chinese characters work you have to understand the building blocks that make up the writing system. He recommends using a romanization system so you are taking out the guess work and inconsistency of playing it by ear. To anyone unfamiliar with tones, learning any tonal language will be difficult. Regardless of your learning style, you should be able to find something that suits your needs. But in 荷蘭(Holland), it's pronounced as "lan1". Really, it only makes Cantonese seem more complicated and difficult than it is if we insist on saying it has 9 tones. Learn Shanghainese – Tones. For the tone 7-9, they are the syllables ended in a clip p, t, k in Cantonese (Clipped syllables). In terms of vocabulary, there are more English loan words in Cantonese than in Mandarin mainly because Hong Kong was a colony of the UK for so long. You can learn Cantonese sounds and tones, daily conversations, commonalities between Cantonese and Mandarin and there is also a dictionary. In the Chinese communities abroad, Cantonese was for a long time the dominant language spoken. 1. These are the basic building blocks for writing in Cantonese. And getting the tones wrong can sometimes prevent other people from being able to understand you correctly. The Cantonese language is tonal, but includes 6 different tones instead of the 4 seen with standard Mandarin. The first thing to remember is that the most common tones in Shanghainese are like the first 2 of Mandarin, high-to-high and low-to-high. Cantonese, is the language/dialect spoken in Hong Kong and southern parts of China which include Guangdong province. They are basic elements for absolute beginners. While Guangzhou Cantonese generally distinguishes between high-falling and high level tones, the two have merged in Hong Kong Cantonese and Macau Cantonese, yielding a system of six different tones in syllables ending in a semi-vowel or nasal consonant. Rather, it is the amalgamation of different vowel sounds and tones that drives beginners crazy. Learning vocabulary in Cantonese is about dedicating the time and effort to the project. The Complete Guide To Learn Cantonese 【廣東話學習指南】 Cantolounge Jyutping Chart 【粵拼表】 Cantolounge grammar series 【廣東話文法系列】 And if you have any Cantonese questions or just questions in general, you can feel free to ask them here. Unlike most other languages in the world, every word that you learn in Cantonese will consist of four parts: (1) the characters; (2) the romanization; (3) the tones; (4) the meaning. July 2017. That is not all, either. This vernacular style better maps how Cantonese is spoken onto traditional Chinese characters but it is only really used in informal contexts. William.h Malaysia. While Cantonese may not be as widely spoken as Mandarin, it does have its uses. Next Steps for Learning Chinese Tones with Tone Pair Drills. Method 2 of 3: Important Words and Phrases. In Hong Kong and Macau, Cantonese is the official language. I also wish to learn Cantonese due to large a Chinese American community that speaks Cantonese around my area. Also, in some cases the vocabulary in Cantonese is formed by taking a loanword from English and mapping on already existing Cantonese sounds as approximations to the English sounds. All tonal languages have a steep learning for beginners but keep at it and you will be able to distinguish the tones and produce them well. In Part 2 of the course, I'll teach you essential survival vocabulary that will be incredibly useful for anyone. This makes Cantonese more difficult for English speakers. We are adding new Cantonese learning tools all the time and our newest tools have some great worksheet creators as well as other Cantonese learning tools: Cantonese Stroke Order - Look up Cantonese words and see the stroke order. He recommends using a romanization system so you are taking out the guess work and inconsistency of playing it by ear. I would get extra exposure to Cantonese by listening to podcasts, music, or other audio whilst driving. Cantonese Questions. Learning Cantonese will give you a level of access to the culture and allow you to speak with the local people on more intimate topics which in turn will allow you to enjoy your time more. Probably not the easiest thing in the world to learn! There are no cases and nouns are non gendered. Learning the subtleties of tones in Cantonese is more important than you think. As is often the case, the answer is conditional on a number of things being true. Learning vocabulary in Cantonese is about dedicating the time and effort to the project. Characterizing the English tone inventory is less straightforward, and there are, historically, a number of different characterizations. There is also an informal written vernacular Cantonese form which you’ll often see in Hong Kong. While Guangzhou Cantonese generally distinguishes between high-falling and high level tones, the two have merged in Hong Kong Cantonese and Macau Cantonese, yielding a system of six different tones in syllables ending in a semi-vowel or nasal consonant . Learn Cantonese How To Pronounce Phonics Hong Kong 19th Century Literature Language Chinese … And there's no-one better than … Truth be told, Cantonese is not the easiest language to learn due to the many tones, for many people difficult pronunciation, and characters. Your first option is to learn Cantonese by attending online classes. In Cantonese for example, there are 9 different tones! Being able to master 6 tones is one hell of a challenge. There are "9 tones" in the Cantonese language, of which 3 tones have ending consonants (入聲字), often confusing for the untrained ear. My Cantonese become very rusty after going to university and I'm a native English and good Cantonese speaker from a Cantonese-speaking family. 6 Cantonese tones- Learn and teach the different tones in Cantonese for children and beginners with this handy chart-includes examples of characters with the tones and English equivalents #LanguageLovers #LanguageLearningMarket #Bilingual. Probably not the easiest thing in the world to learn! Chinese tones. Luckily for us, the romanization systems have tone numbers built in. Cantonese Tones. The most difficult part of learning Cantonese is not the grammar--or even the script. The tones in Cantonese are as follows. The idea of tones was only introduced by phonologists for the sake of phonology. Cantonese can be written in 1 of 2 different styles of related writing scripts. There are 6 basic tones. Learn Cantonese | CantoneseClass101.com podcast on demand - Learn Cantonese with Free Podcasts Whether you are student or a seasoned speaker, our lessons offer something for everyone. 2013 Aug;134(2):EL133-9. As such, Cantonese was the language most used for communication by foreigners when interacting with the Chinese. To further add to the confusion, Cantonese originally has no true phonetics system (pronunciation used to use the. In fact, every Chinese dialect has a tonal system. 1. For pronunciation the major difference is tones. 2. 1. The main issues with Cantonese relative to other languages are the lack of loans words and cognates from English, the number and difficulty of the tones and the complexity of the written script be it either traditional or simplified Chinese. Let’s jump in to the topic a little further. Basically, you should start with the basics, and move to more difficult content. The sounds are different, the vocabulary is different and the grammar is different. But these tones are essentially the same as 3 of the other tones with other consonant or vowel endings. Yet more than one and half billion Chinese, as well as a vast number of foreign students speak impeccable Chinese, showing that Chinese tones are not impossible to learn. Like other Chinese dialects, Cantonese uses tone contours to distinguish words, with the number of possible tones depending on the type of final. But, it’s still possible and something you should try if you are interested in the language! ... Like the tones in Cantonese, the number of cases in Hungarian is disputed – 18, 21 or even 26 are all figures that have been touted. Some advice on how to learn Chinese tones. I've made friends with a couple of Cantonese speakers, so practice speaking with someone will be a piece of cake. [Nou5] (Admittedly, this tone does not really exist in English), eg: si1 is pronounced like the letter “C”, eg: si2 is pronounced like raising the voice, “See?”, eg: si3 is pronounced like trailing the voice, “See…”, eg: si4 is pronounced like lowering the voice, as in “greasy” [gri1-si4], eg: si5 is pronounced like connecting Tone 4 to 3 “…see what I mean?”, eg: si6 is pronounced like lowering the voice, “Select” [si6-lect1] or "Decree" [di6-cri1], The sound order of the six tones can be heard in the beginning of, The phonetic pronunciation in this guide will follow my personal model, Simplified Yuetping (2011) loosely based off of. Take the word 巴士 bus, pronounced baasi. This scared me off. In terms of actual range of distinct sounds, both languages have sounds which would be new to English speakers but the difficulty is equally spread between the two languages. From complete beginner courses, to grammar and listening training, I've created unique, story-based programmes to help you reach you language goals. Chinese (Cantonese) Video 3: Chinese (Cantonese) Vowels . As tones 7, 8 and 9 are in fact the same melodious tone as 1, 3, and 6, the numerical tones have been reduced to 6 tones in this guide. As you can see they have taken sounds that closely align and plonked them together. With grammar, both Mandarin and Cantonese are subject-verb-object. Learning Cantonese does not have to be expensive. We incorporate culture and current issues into each episode to … Please come back frequently for updates! 1. the cantonese have uncountable Tone auxiliary witch is super difficult to use, and thier no answer of using "correct" Tone auxiliary. Second to Zhou Moro’s answer. Step 2: Get a Cantonese Tones Cheat Sheet. These tones involve a change in pitch which together with the base sound denote meaning. Chinese is infamous for being a tonal language—meaning the tone, or pitch of the word determines its meaning. #2: Check out the language learning infographic. Learn Cantonese In 15 Minutes A Day. Given how powerful and economically influential the People’s Republic of China has become the Chinese language that everyone else is learning these days is Mandarin. Cantonese vocabulary is formed from either single syllable words or multiple syllables grouped together to form a word. The 6 Tones Of Modern Cantonese. Cantonese Finals. The tones were important to learn for Cantonese and the book is somewhat challenging for me. Think that's too much for you? doi: 10.1121/1.4812435. If you can say the following instances of "no" and identify each as a different tone, you can master the six tones of Cantonese...or sort of. Part of the reason why I had not been motivated to learn Cantonese before, was the perceived difficulty of learning nine tones. Cantonese has three level tones [i.e., Tone 1 (T1, High Level, HL), Tone 3 (T3, Mid-Level, ML), and Tone 6 (T6, Low Level, LL)], two rising tones [i.e., Tone 2 (T2, High Rising, HR), Tone 5 (T5, Low Rising, LR)], and one falling tone [i.e., Tone 4 (T4, Low Falling, LF)]. The Cantonese language is tonal, but includes 6 different tones instead of the 4 seen with standard Mandarin. In this course, you will learn . The Number of Tones. Chinese is infamous for being a tonal language—meaning the tone, or pitch of the word determines its meaning. Cantonese can be written in both simplified and traditional written Chinese. Keep this in mind as it effectively doubles the learning time when compared with vocabulary in a Latin alphabet language. But, why start out there? Personally I would suggest you to focus on Mandarin first. Share this episode with a friend (use the share buttons on your screen) Olly's Language Courses If you're learning a new language, or improving an existing one, then check out my language courses. There have been several rounds of tone splits in both Mandarin and Cantonese, and tone contours have changed over time in both as well. Simplified and Traditional Chinese also used to represent Mandarin in China and Taiwan respectively. Step 2: Get a Cantonese Tones Cheat Sheet. For most practical purposes, you can regard Cantonese has having 6 tones, their contours often ordered and described in the following way: 1. If you lived in Guangdong, you probably learnt Cantonese from your family but at school and in the media you are going to be exposed to a lot of Mandarin. It was usually more like 15 minutes. Chinese tones. While most native speakers say there are nine tones, in modern Cantonese only six are now taught as shown by the picture below: So what is the best way to learn the tones? But, it’s still possible and something you should try if you are interested in the language! Luisa Tam teaches you how mastering the pitch contours of the language can help you avoid some awkward… The Language Learning Market. Note that Mandarin has lost the 3 入聲/入声 and these tones have merged with the other tones. (Some of these have more than one realization, but such differences are not used to distinguish words.) I'll walk you through learning Cantonese slowly, clearly and systematically. Fundamental frequency contours for representative Cantonese tones produced on the syllable [ji] by an adult male native speaker from Hong Kong. So, why not be a little adventurous and different and try the alternative? Cantonese. Cantonese Consonants. Videos, podcast, grammar lessons, language tips and more to start you on your Cantonese learning journey. Cantonese is the term used for the dialect of Yue Chinese spoken in HK/Macau, Guangdong and many Chinese communities around the world. Each "no" in the examples above (attempt to) correspond with a Cantonese tone with the sound [nou], repeated in romanization below: 5. lots spefic cantonese word still dont have a … If you have a particular interest in Guangdong, or more likely Hong Kong culture then Cantonese is the language to learn. Given the numbers, it would be a long time before Cantonese is fully lost from mainland China. It also has significant usage amongst Chinese communities in Singapore, Cambodia and Indonesia. Mind your manners with polite words and phrases. Cantonese is a must learn language for anyone with an interest in Hong Kong, or southern China more broadly. 1) Start with individual tones. There 3 major components to understand. Authors Angela Cooper 1 , Yue Wang. … For the tone 7-9, they are the syllables ended in a clip p, t, k in Cantonese (Clipped syllables). Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. I discovered the complexity of Chinese tones during my project to learn Cantonese. I created this infographic to help learners instate clarity when learning a new language – it’s literally got everything you’ll need to do at your fingertips. Here are a comprehensive list of free online learning resources for Cantonese, predominantly for beginners and intermediate learners. In total there are believed to be around 68 million speakers of Cantonese worldwide. Welcome to Cantonese Tools.org , the place for learn Cantonese tools. The tones of a character will change depending on where it is in a word and what character is beside it. This is because of the history of people from the Guangdong region moving to these countries over many decades. Chinese (Cantonese) Video 4: Spelling Rules (Three Peculiarities of Jyutping) Note: If you’d like more information on phonetics and the IPA, check out this series of videos. If the tones are divided according to the pitch levels only, the re are only 6 real tones. Cantonese is also the most common Chinese language within Chinese communities in Vietnam and Malaysia. FSI and DLI Cantonese Course Includes four Cantonese courses, 33 eBooks and 161 audios completely free. The tone used to pronounce the syllables of a Chinese word can completely change its meaning. Not surprisingly, tones have a tendency to scare people away from learning Chinese because they’re commonly deemed too difficult to learn. Your first option is to learn Cantonese by attending online classes. Tones – This is the daunting part of Cantonese pronunciation. Mandarin Chinese has 4 tonesplus a neutral "tone". However, it is also important to note that most Cantonese speakers have had a lot of exposure to Mandarin. And if you really put your mind to it, you can even learn Cantonese in one year, like I did. LEARN CANTONESE ONLINE WITH LTL Learn Cantonese Online with fully qualified, native Cantonese speakers at LTL. This has changed the Chinese languages being spoken abroad. Cantonese Pinyin (Chinese: 常用字廣州話讀音表:拼音方案, also known as 教院式拼音方案) is a romanization system for Cantonese developed by Rev. You must rise, maintain or lower the relative pitch of your voice to "sing" each word. That being said, those locals who want to do business and spend a lot of time in mainland China will find that they are increasingly expected to learn and use Mandarin. Luisa Tam teaches you how mastering the pitch contours of the language can help you avoid some awkward… Keep this in mind as it effectively doubles the learning time when compared with vocabulary in … It seems that it doesn't follow any "rules of changing tone" like those in Mandarin. Characters aside, the other major stumbling block in Cantonese is the tones. 2. It has one major weakness: it includes a seventh tone—the high falling tone—that nearly all other modern Cantonese learning resources no longer include, as it has mostly fallen out of use in contemporary usage (the few places where it may still appear—like in the word 㖭 at the end of sentences—are incredibly idiomatic and can be picked up with practice). However, what’s beyond doubt is that Hungarian grammar is among the most mind-bendingly difficult in Europe. "Why learn Cantonese and one way to do it" (1/20/17) [Thanks to Don Snow, Judy Weng, Norman Leung, Alan Chin, Timothy Wong, Nelson Ching, Marjorie Chan, Pui Ling Tang, Lily Lee, Howard Y. F. Choy, TinhVan Diep, Justin Wu, Carmen Lee, and Ashley Liu] ===== *Additional remarks by respondent #7. and a rising tone at the end of a question ( You came? Cantonese is spoken by around 50 million people in Hong Kong and southern China. Cantonese is also the dominant language in the Guangdong province of China. Learn the romanization of Cantonese first, do not learn by ear. This puts a lot of learners off before they even start, but actually, over the years some tones have merged, and now only 6 tones are taught in modern Cantonese. Simplified Chinese in Guangdong, Traditional Chinese in Hong Kong and Macau. You should decide which of traditional and simplified you are going to use, and get started asap. So, to answer the question, Cantonese speakers can often understand Mandarin because of the exposure to the language but the languages themselves are technically unintelligible. But Cantonese and Mandarin aren’t the only Chinese languages with a tonal system. You should still start by getting familiar with the individual tones one by one. Saved by Mikibella Man. Our lessons are taught by genuine native Cantonese speakers who know how to get foreigners ahead fast. (You’ll also be subscribed to the newsletter, where I’ll be sharing Cantonese learning tips exclusive to subscribers.) Their results were compared to English non-m … Effects of tone training on Cantonese tone-word learning J Acoust Soc Am. Hungarian is also extremely idiomatic. There are 6 'real' tones in Cantonese. China has more than 80 different dialects. Native English non-musicians received training on Cantonese tones before learning the meanings of words distinguished by these tones. However, the grammar is probably one of the easiest pieces of the Cantonese puzzle. Fewer and fewer people are speaking it in Guangdong province and given the large influx of Mandarin speaking migrant labour it seems few people are trying to promote the language. Carlos uses the Yale romanization system which was developed for English speakers and takes into account the sound and the 6 tones in Cantonese. Traditionally those who left China to live abroad came from the southern regions of China and so they spoke Cantonese. Very often the combination of Chinese tones and characters causes a lot of students to give up too soon. Truth be told, Cantonese is not the easiest language to learn due to the many tones, for many people difficult pronunciation, and characters. Learning Cantonese with Online Courses . Carlos uses the Yale romanization system which was developed for English speakers and takes into account the sound and the 6 tones in Cantonese. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. In truth, lesser dialects are even more at risk of being completely lost in southern China. There are "9 tones" in the Cantonese language, of which 3 tones have ending consonants (入聲字), often confusing for the untrained ear. Cantonese is an official language in both Hong Kong and Macau where the vast majority of people speak Cantonese as a first language. I am a native Cantonese speaker. The combinations of syllables together can make some logical sense and make learning the new vocabulary easier and sometimes fun. Lessons are divided up into Sounds and Tones Lessons, Grammar Lessons, Language Skills, and Vocabulary. Lets assume you haven’t had exposure to either language and that we are not assessing the relative merits of the writing system as Cantonese and Mandarin speakers use both Traditional and Simplified characters in different locations. There are some shortcuts but learning the words requires you to learn the pronunciation and the characters. Affiliation 1 Department of Linguistics, … Learn the romanization of Cantonese first, do not learn by ear. And there's no-one better than … I’ve also create … ). Depending on the source, you may see Cantonese described as having 6, 7, 9, or 10 tones. If the tones are divided according to the pitch levels only, the re are only 6 real tones. Contemporary vocal music in both Mandarin and Cantonese stems from a common source, a new style of Chinese music that developed in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, but the two musics realize linguistic tone differently. It is used in government, the media, education and by almost all the local people. 2. lots of cantonese word are still unidentified, i mean people know how to speak, but dont know how to write. Luckily for us, the romanization systems have tone numbers built in. Students always ask me a question on the first Cantonese class: Are there really nine tones in Cantonese? 3. After learning the basic knowledge, you will go through the Basic Cantonese For Beginner Course and start to learn Cantonese Character (Traditional Chinese) : Beginner Course.. Gabrielle has worked in education industry for 13 years in Hong Kong.
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